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What's In The Bowl: Home Made Super Dog Food Meal

Cooked Chicken Pomegranate Super Food!

[su_youtube url="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MnTa_013HLc"]    

Your dog will love this home made cooked superfood recipe! (prep time 15 minutes)

  In this super-functional, home-made dog food recipe, we’re going to use ingredients that you will typically have lying around the kitchen to make an unbelievably healthy meal for your dog. Ok, not all of you will have liver and pomegranate, but it might be time to start stocking them. Buying liver chunks for the freezer or buying dried liver is a great idea because it’s an incredible doggy super food. Think of it as your dog’s natural multivitamin. I would also add pomegranate to your weekly shop for both you and your dog. Every year more research comes out about pomegranates incredible health benefits for dogs and humans alike. It’s high in antioxidants, it has anti – cancerous properties, it’s high in vitamin C, it’s a potent anti-inflammatory, it’s an effective anti – viral and the list goes on. I prescribe pomegranate to so many of my clients to help with their dog's health issues. Boiling your dog’s food is a great way to preserve the proteins instead of the more abrasive frying method. The meat will lose some of its minerals in the cooking process but I use my all natural supplement meal topper to replace those minerals and provide an even greater boost to the overall nutrition profile of the meal. Another great trick is to use the water that you boiled the meat in for your dog’s water bowl after it’s cooled down. What a tasty incentive for them to stay hydrated! You can interchange the broccoli, carrots and pomegranate in this recipe with other fruit and veg your dogs like if these aren’t their favourites. This complete, homemade dog food recipe will take you no more than 10 – 15 minutes to prepare and clean up and your dog will absolutely love it! Simple.

Ingredients

  • 250 g chicken
  • 50 g of chicken liver
  • 25 g of broccoli
  • 25 g of carrot
  • 25 g of pomegranate
  • 1 tbs of oil (mct oil, coconut oil, hemp oil)
  • 1 tbs of The Dog Nutritionist All Natural Supplement
  • 1 organic egg
  • 1 organic egg shell
  • 50 g of cooked brown rice

Method

  1. Bring a pot of water to the boil.
  2. Chop the chicken and chicken liver (or any liver) into small chunks. Approximately half the size of your thumb.
  3. Put the chopped chicken and chicken liver into the boiling water for 5 - 7 minutes.
  4. Whilst your meat is cooking grate the broccoli and carrot and put it into a bowl.
  5. Crack a raw egg into the bowl with the broccoli and carrot.
  6. Dice up the egg shell very finely and add it to the same bowl.
  7. Add the pomegranate, oil, and The Dog Nutritionist All Natural Supplement to the bowl with the other ingredients and mix well.
  8. Sieve your meat (after 5 - 7 minutes) and add the bowl of ingredients to the meat.
  9. Add an optional 50 g of rice or sweet potato to bolster the meal.
  10. Make sure it's cool enough for your dog to eat and serve them an appropriate bowl size for their size and breed.
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Leish 1

Homemade dog food diets for dogs with Leishmaniasis

The ressurgance and management of Leishmaniasis is rooted to the quality of the diet being consumed. I've condensed all my research into a simple article to help you make the best decisions possible for your dog.  

What is Canine Leishmaniasis?

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infectious disease with a long history of infecting both humans and animals. Leishmaniasis is an emerging or resurging disease, meaning it can remain dormant and return. The emergence – or resurgence – of the disease is innately connected to diet and immune system. Leishmaniasis can cause two different types of infections: A cutaneous infection (skin infection) and a visceral infection (organ infection).  

How do you know if your dog has Leishmaniasis?

Symptoms may be present from three months to several years after your dog becomes infected. An early indication of Leishmaniasis is lymphadenopathy, which causes your dog’s lymph nodes to swell. Your dog’s skin may also present certain signs, which are frequent and variable in their presentation. About 90% of the dogs will present cutaneous lesions. Other signs of Leishmaniasis involve anorexia, chronic enteritis, and weight loss (1,2,3,4).  

What affects the progression of Leishmaniasis?

Diet

It has long been established that a dog’s nutritional intake is intrinsically connected to the immune response and, therefore, the progression of Leishmaniasis (5,6). Unfortunately, the majority of tinned dog foods provide sub-optimal dietary benefits due to the fact that protein levels are lessened due to intensive food processing, denaturing proteins, reduced nutrient availability, and low-quality food sources. As well as a low-quality, low-protein diet, obesity can also contribute to the advance of Leishmaniasis.

Weak Immune System

Having a weakened immune system plays a crucial role in the clinical manifestations of canine Leishmaniasis and is a fundamental aspect in the development and progression of the disease (7). Both Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmaniasis protection relies on cell-mediated immunity.  

Inflammation

As inflammation is related to progressive diseases, reducing inflammation decreases the likelihood for both the emergence and resurgence of the disease (8,9,10,11). Inflammation is reduced by the specific fresh food diet plan detailed below, as well as a reduction in stress, exercise, and increased oxytocin (more time gazing lovingly at your dog) (12). Inflammation is caused by:
  • An incorrect or incomplete diet, leading to high blood sugar levels, high glycaemic carbohydrate levels, gluten sensitivity, and deficiencies in Magnesium, Zinc, and Vitamin D.
  • Obesity
  • Oxidative stress
  • Lack of exercise
  • Lack of sleep
 

Current Treatment for Canine Leishmaniasis

Unfortunately, the current medication prescribed for Leishmaniasis is extremely strong and not always successful. Allopurinol is associated with clinical relapse (13,14) and its side effects include urinary conditions, with one study finding that 45% of dogs taking allopurinol develop urinary issues (13,14). There are also several side effects in the case of long-term usage of allopurinol, such as xanthinuria, renal mineralisation, and urolithiasis. Although Miltefosine is the first effective oral therapy for Visceral Leishmaniasis, it is expensive, potentially teratogenic, and has significant gastrointestinal side effects (15,16,17).   The Low Purine Myth Often, low purine diets are recommended for dogs who are undertaking a therapeutic dose of allopurinol. This advice stems from one study affiliated with Royal Canin, which found that a low purine, moderate protein diet reduces the risk of xanthine urolithiasis, offering long-term dietary support for dogs being treated by allopurinol for Leishmaniasis. However, this study was evidently biased, as Royal Canin only sells low-quality, low-protein diets. Furthermore, the dogs observed in this study were taking allopurinol daily, which is a therapeutic dose associated with extreme cases of canine Leishmaniasis. For dogs who are on a maintenance dose of one week per month, studies have shown that allopurinol is an effective way of maintaining clinical remission in dogs with Leishmaniasis. (18). In these cases, standard to high protein diets are recommended. One study on the effects of dietary protein on Leishmaniasis progression showed that higher protein diets showed a stronger immune response and the participants had lower parasite loads (5).  

How can I treat my dog’s Leishmaniasis with nutrition?

Arguably, the treatment of Leishmaniasis is most effectively done through diet, as it is simply impossible to provide an anti-inflammatory diet that builds up the immune system with processed food. Instead, a specific fresh food diet can address the underlying causes of Leishmaniasis, thereby stunting its pathogenesis. Dr Artur Vasconcelos, a Brazilian veterinarian, found that dogs with moderate kidney issues who were fed a high-quality fresh food diet, had an unaffected life expectancy.  

Diet Breakdown

For dogs who are on allopurinol daily, and those showing signs of either cutaneous or visceral Leishmaniasis, a low purine diet should be consumed. However, for dogs who are taking a cyclical quantity of allopurinol or none at all, a specific anti-inflammatory diet should be consumed.

Protein

A normal medium–high protein diet should be given to dogs who are not currently taking allopurinol. If the maintenance dose of one week per month is being applied correctly, a low purine diet should be made available for that week.

Fat

A medium-fat diet should be given to all dogs. The inclusion of too many carbohydrates, which low-quality dog foods use as a cheaper energy alternative to fats, promote inflammation. A natural Omega-3 source (a fish-based recipe) should be used at least twice a week to ensure the PUFA ratio is balanced towards being anti-inflammatory.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrate intake should be limited for all dogs, as they contribute to inflammation. Low glycaemic carbs can be used for those dogs who need a low purine diet.

Fibres

Standard variations of fruit and vegetables should be given to complete your dog’s diet and ensure sufficient vitamin and mineral balance.

Recommended Supplements

    -    
  1. F. Koutinas and C. K. Koutinas, “Pathologic mechanisms underlying the clinical findings in canine Leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum/chagasi,” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 527–538, 2014.View at: Publisher SiteGoogle Scholar
  2. Solano-Gallego, G. Miró, A. F. Koutinas et al., “LeishVet guidelines for the practical management of canine leishmaniasis,” Parasites & Vectors, vol. 4, article 86, 2011.View at: Google Scholar
  3. Foglia Manzillo, T. Di Muccio, S. Cappiello et al., “Prospective study on the incidence and progression of clinical signs in naïve dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum,” PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 7, no. 5, Article ID e2225, 2013.View at: Publisher SiteGoogle Scholar
  4. Ferrer, R. Rabanal, D. Fondevila, J. A. Ramos, and M. Domingo, “Skin lesions in canine leishmaniasis,” Journal of Small Animal Practice, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 381–388, 1988.View at: Publisher SiteGoogle Scholar
  5. Malafaia, G., 2009. Protein‐energy malnutrition as a risk factor for visceral leishmaniasis: a review. Parasite immunology31(10), pp.587-596.
  6. Nweze, J.A., Nweze, E.I. and Onoja, U.S., 2020. Nutrition, malnutrition, and leishmaniasis. Nutrition73, p.110712.
  7. Alvar, C. Cañavate, R. Molina, J. Moreno, and J. Nieto, “Canine leishmaniasis,” Advances in Parasitology, vol. 57, pp. 1–88, 2004.View at: Publisher SiteGoogle Scholar
  8. M. Kaye and T. Aebischer, “Visceral leishmaniasis: Immunology and prospects for a vaccine,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1462–1470, 2011.View at: Publisher SiteGoogle Scholar
  9. Y. Liew and C. A. O'Donnell, “Immunology of leishmaniasis,” Advances in Parasitology, vol. 32, pp. 161–259, 1993.View at: Publisher SiteGoogle Scholar
  10. Hosein, D. P. Blake, and L. Solano-Gallego, “Insights on adaptive and innate immunity in canine leishmaniosis,” Parasitology, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 95–115, 2017.View at: Publisher SiteGoogle Scholar
  11. L. Barbiéri, “Immunology of canine leishmaniasis,” Parasite Immunology, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 329–337, 2006.View at: Publisher SiteGoogle Scholar
  12. https://selfhack.com/blog/supplements-lifestyle-factors-influence-tnf-interleukin-6-il-6/
  13. Manna, R. Corso, G. Galiero, A. Cerrone, P. Muzj, and A. E. Gravino, “Long-term follow-up of dogs with leishmaniosis treated with meglumine antimoniate plus allopurinol versus
  14. Torres, M., Pastor, J., Roura, X., Tabar, M.D., Espada, Y., Font, A., Balasch, J. and Planellas, M., 2016. Adverse urinary effects of allopurinol in dogs with leishmaniasis. Journal of Small Animal Practice57(6), pp.299-304.
  15. miltefosine plus allopurinol,” Parasites & Vectors, vol. 8, no. 1, article no. 289, 2015.View at: Publisher SiteGoogle Scholar
  16. Solano-Gallego, A. Rodriguez-Cortes, M. Trotta et al., “Detection of Leishmania infantumDNA by fret-based real-time PCR in urine from dogs with natural clinical leishmaniosis,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 147, no. 3-4, pp. 315–319, 2007.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  17. Torres, J. Pastor, X. Roura et al., “Adverse urinary effects of allopurinol in dogs with leishmaniasis,” Journal of Small Animal Practice, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 299–304, 2016.View at: Publisher SiteGoogle Scholar
  18. Ginel, P.J., Lucena, R., Lopez, R. and Molleda, J.M., 1998. Use of allopurinol for maintenance of remission in dogs with leishmaniasis. Journal of Small Animal Practice39(6), pp.271-274.
  In the Cancer info section, you have added a sentence that explains what these supplements are. Could we do something similar here, so that it is consistent?

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Cancer

Everything you need to know about canine cancer.

What is Canine Cancer?

Just like humans, dogs are made of trillions of cells and, just like humans, canine cancer is caused when old or abnormal cells reproduce (7).   Many naturally-occurring cancers that affect humans also affect dogs (5). In fact, canine cancer has long been established as a strong comparative model for cancer in humans (1,2,3,4). As dog tumours are histologically similar to human tumours, they respond similarly to conventional therapies (6).   The primary reason for the proliferation of canine tumours that are similar to human tumours is the fact that dogs are fully immersed into our human environment – they eat similar foods and are exposed to similar risk factors (8–12). Effectively, their connection to our human world is the central reason why more dogs are affected by cancer than any other animal.    

What Causes Cancer?

  Cancer can be defined as abnormal cell growth caused by changes in the genes, which act as the instruction manual for how cells are made and how healthy they’ll be. Therefore, when genes express unhealthy traits, they begin to produce unhealthy cells, which causes a change in gene expression.   The graph below shows the factors that play a role in the development of cancer. Although this is a chart about human cancer, we can also use it to predict why our dogs are suffering because of the fact that canine cancer is comparable to human cancer.     As you can see, cancer is overwhelmingly caused by unhealthy lifestyles and harmful environments. The fact that only 5–10% of all cancer cases are caused by genetic flaws and the remaining 90–95% are caused by environmental and lifestyle factors provides us with significant opportunities to prevent cancer (14).

 

How do Unhealthy Lifestyles and Harmful Environments Lead to Cancer?

  The answer can be found in epigenetics – the study of the ways in which our behaviours and environments affect our genes. Ultimately, the quality of the lifestyle and environment that our dogs experience will determine their likelihood of cancer. The more natural their lifestyle, the more likely they’ll express healthy genes and create healthy cells. The power of epigenetics has been evidenced in plenty of animal model studies (14-18). As you can see from the graph, diet is the biggest determinant of cancer. This has been confirmed by many studies that have highlighted how diet can contribute to chronic inflammation, obesity, and calorie excess. This negatively affects DNA, increases DNA damage, and causes epigenetic alterations that increase the risk of cancer(19). The good news, however, is that epigenetic alterations are reversible.  

What is an Anticancer Diet?

  A growing number of preclinical and clinical studies report that dietary intervention through a ketogenic diet is a powerful anti-cancer therapy that can be safely applied for canine cancer (20-24). A ketogenic diet is a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet that mimics certain characteristics of fasting. As cancer feeds on glucose, the ketogenic diet creates an unfavourable metabolic environment for cancer cell proliferation, which effectively starves the cancer.   Another process that is affected through diet is angiogenesis – the formation of new blood capillary vessels that provide expanding tissues, organs, and tumours with oxygen and nutrients while removing metabolic waste. Deregulated angiogenesis plays an essential role in feeding tumour growth (25). Certain foods, however, prevent angiogenesis, which effectively starves the cancer (26).   Therefore, an anticancer diet can be described as a ketogenic diet that incorporates ingredients that inhibit angiogenesis.    

Is an Anticancer Diet Right for your Dog?

  Firstly, a holistic approach needs to be taken to cancer. Try to remove all possible contributing factors that surround your dog. Chemical cleaning products, second hand smoke, polluted areas etc. However, the most important and influential factor that will need to change is your dog’s diet.   I would also like to add, this depends on the age of the dog and whether you feel there’s more life left. I wouldn’t pushed a dramatic dietary change upon an really elderly dog, it may be better to just live their best life possible. However, you can try implement as much of this as you like.   Second, the extent to which you implement an anticancer diet guidance will also depend on the age of your dog. For example, I wouldn’t push a dramatic dietary change upon an elderly dog, as it may be better for them to continue their routine and live the best life they possibly can.   It’s also worth remembering that a holistic approach should always be prioritised. Therefore, in addition to dietary changes, you should also try to remove all other possible contributing factors, such as chemical cleaning products, second-hand smoke, and polluted areas.    

Diet Breakdown

Protein

A medium protein diet is recommended. This is because you'll need a high-fat diet to replicate a ketogenic diet and, if your dog’s dietary protein is too high, it’s likely the meat you’re using is too lean.

Fat

A high-fat diet made up of between 20–30% fat is recommended.  

Carbohydrates and Fibres

All carbohydrates and gluten should be completely avoided. Anti-cancer ingredients such as broccoli and cauliflower should constitute 10–15% of your dog’s diet. Herbs such as parsley are also highly recommended for their anti-angiogenic propensities.  

Vitamins and Minerals

A complete meal daily is recommended, as studies have shown that both restricted and exaggerated mineral intake can increase the risk of cancer progression (27).  

Recommended Supplements

Cordyceps/Turkey Tail Mushrooms: Mushroom polysaccharides with immunomodulation and anticancer effects (28).   Genistein: A natural flavonoid reported to exhibit anticancer effects (29).   Resveratrol: A stilbenoid that activates natural killer cells and inhibits cancerous cell growth (30).   Quercetin: A flavonoid that is highly toxic against cancerous cells (31).   References
  1. Khanna C et al. 2006 The dog as a cancer model. Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 1065–1066. (doi:10.1038/ nbt0906-1065b)
  2. Rowell JL, McCarthy DO, Alvarez CE. 2011 Dog models of naturally occurring cancer. Trends Mol. Med. 17, 380–388. (doi:10.1016/j.molmed.2011. 02.004)
  3. Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 1065–1066. (doi:10.1038/ nbt0906-1065b)
  4. Rowell JL, McCarthy DO, Alvarez CE. 2011 Dog models of naturally occurring cancer. Trends Mol. Med. 17, 380–388. (doi:10.1016/j.molmed.2011. 02.004)
  5. Tamburini, B.A. et al. (2009) Gene expression profiles of sporadic canine hemangiosarcoma are uniquely associated with breed. PLoS ONE 4, e5549
  6. Paoloni, M. and Khanna, C. (2008) Translation of new cancer treatments from pet dogs to humans. Nat. Rev. Cancer 8, 147–156
  7. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-basics/what-is-cancer.html
  8. E. G. MacEwen, “Spontaneous tumors in dogs and cats: models for the study of cancer biology and treatment,” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 125–136, 1990.
  9. D. M. Vail and E. G. MacEwen, “Spontaneously occurring tumors of companion animals as models for human cancer,” Cancer Investigation, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 781–792, 2000.
  10. C.Khanna,K.Lindblad-Toh,D.Vailetal.,“edogasacancer model,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 1065–1066, 2006.
  11. S. S. Pinho, S. Carvalho, J. Cabral, C. A. Reis, and F. Gärt- ner, “Canine tumors: a spontaneous animal model of human carcinogenesis,” Translational Research, vol. 159, no. 3, pp. 165–172, 2012.
  12. L. Marconato, M. E. Gelain, and S. Comazzi, “e dog as a possible animal model for human non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a review,” Hematological Oncology. In press.
  13. Anand, P., Kunnumakara, A.B., Sundaram, C., Harikumar, K.B., Tharakan, S.T., Lai, O.S., Sung, B. and Aggarwal, B.B., 2008. Cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes. Pharmaceutical research25(9), pp.2097-2116.
  14. Aagaard-Tillery KM, Grove K, Bishop J, Ke X, Fu Q, et al. 2008. Developmental origins of disease and determinants of chromatin structure: maternal diet modifies the primate fetal epigenome. J. Mol. Endocrinol. 41:91–102
  15. Schaible TD, Harris RA, Dowd SE, Smith CW, Kellermayer R. 2011. Maternal methyl-donor supplementation induces prolonged murine offspring colitis susceptibility in association with mucosal epigenetic and microbiomic changes. Hum. Mol. Genet. 20(9):1687–96
  16. Strakovsky RS, Zhang X, Zhou D, Pan Y-X. 2011. Gestational high fat diet programs hepatic phos- phoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression and histone modification in neonatal offspring rats. J. Physiol. 589(Pt. 11):2707–17
  17. Wang L, Zhang H, Zhou J, Liu Y, Yang Y, et al. 2014. Betaine attenuates hepatic steatosis by reducing methylation of the MTTP promoter and elevating genomic methylation in mice fed a high-fat diet. J. Nutr. Biochem. 25(3):329–36
  18. Wolff GL, Kodell RL, Moore SR, Cooney CA. 1998. Maternal epigenetics and methyl supplements affect agouti gene expression in Avy/a mice. FASEB J. 12(11):949–57
  19. Pelham JT, Irwin PJ, Kay PH. Genomic hypomethylation in neoplastic cells from dogs with malignant lymphoproliferative disorders. Res Vet Sci (2003) 74:101–4. doi: 10.1016/S0034-5288(02)00179-0
  20. Schmidt M, Pfetzer N, Schwab M, Strauss I, Kämmerer U. Effects of a ketogenic diet on the quality of life in 16 patients with advanced cancer: A pilot trial. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2011; 8:54.https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-8-54
  21. Artzi M, Liberman G, Vaisman N, Bokstein F, Vitinshtein F, Aizenstein O, Ben Bashat D. Changes in cerebral metabolism during ketogenic diet in patients with primary brain tumors: (1)H-MRS study. J Neurooncol. 2017; 132:267–75.https://doi.org/10.1007/s11060-016-2364-x
  22. Klement RJ. Beneficial effects of ketogenic diets for cancer patients: a realist review with focus on evidence and confirmation. Med Oncol. 2017; 34:132.https://doi.org/10.1007/s12032-017-0991-5
  23. Winter SF, Loebel F, Dietrich J. Role of ketogenic metabolic therapy in malignant glioma: A systematic review. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2017; 112:41–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2017.02.016
  24. Leung, Y.B., Cave, N.J., Heiser, A., Edwards, P.J., Godfrey, A.J.R. and Wester, T., 2020. Metabolic and immunological effects of intermittent fasting on a ketogenic diet containing medium-chain triglycerides in healthy dogs. Frontiers in veterinary science, 6, p.480. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2019.00480/full
  25. Carmeliet P. Angiogenesis in life, disease and medicine. Nature. 2005;438:932–936. doi: 10.1038/nature04478. https://www.nature.com/articles/nature04478
  26. Varol, M., 2020. Natural remedies and functional foods as angiogenesis modulators. In Functional Foods in Cancer Prevention and Therapy (pp. 1-31). Academic Press.
  27. Vernieri, C., Nichetti, F., Raimondi, A., Pusceddu, S., Platania, M., Berrino, F. and de Braud, F., 2018. Diet and supplements in cancer prevention and treatment: Clinical evidences and future perspectives. Critical reviews in oncology/hematology123, pp.57-73.
  28. Singdevsachan, S.K., Auroshree, P., Mishra, J., Baliyarsingh, B., Tayung, K. and Thatoi, H., 2016. Mushroom polysaccharides as potential prebiotics with their antitumor and immunomodulating properties: A review. Bioactive carbohydrates and dietary fibre7(1), pp.1-14.
  29. Bi, Y.L., Min, M., Shen, W. and Liu, Y., 2018. Genistein induced anticancer effects on pancreatic cancer cell lines involves mitochondrial apoptosis, G0/G1cell cycle arrest and regulation of STAT3 signalling pathway. Phytomedicine39, pp.10-16.
  30. Lee, Y., Shin, H. and Kim, J., 2021. In vivo anti-cancer effects of resveratrol mediated by NK cell activation. Journal of Innate Immunity13(2), pp.93-105.
  31. Rauf, A., Imran, M., Khan, I.A., ur‐Rehman, M., Gilani, S.A., Mehmood, Z. and Mubarak, M.S., 2018. Anticancer potential of quercetin: A comprehensive review. Phytotherapy Research32(11), pp.2109-2130.
        Should we offer some guidance on what people can do if their dog does have pancreatic cancer?

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Urinary 2 | Canine nutritionist

Homemade dog food diets for dogs with a Urinary Tract Infection

This is all my research on Urinary tract infections, condensed into a simple and easy to read article, so you can make the best and most informed decisions on treating UTIs.   What is the urinary tract? The urinary tract is a waste removal system. When your dog eats, the body takes nutrients from the food and it goes into the blood. Not everything taken into the blood is needed or in fact healthy, it’s waste. The kidneys and urinary system help the body to eliminate the waste. This waste is called Urea, it’s carried in the bloodstream (after entering the blood through the digestive process) to the kidneys, where it is removed along with water and other waste. The journey begins in the kidneys, then it travels dog the ureters, the tubes from the kidney to the bladder. Then when your dog takes a number 1, it goes through the urethra, the final tube.   What are the symptoms of a urinary tract infection in dogs?

  • Bloody and/or cloudy urine
  • Straining or whimpering during urination
  • Accidents in the house
  • Needing to be let outside more frequently
  • Licking around the urinary opening
  • Fever
  What are Urinary Tract Infections? Urine infections affect around 27% of dogs. These are infections that cause inflammation in the urinary tract and are mainly an overgrowth of bacteria, but they can also be caused by fungus overgrowth, and in extremely rare cases, viral infection. (1)   What are the types of Urinary Tract infections in Dogs?
  • Bacterial Cystitis
  • Pyelonephritis
  • Prostatitis
  • Sporadic Cystitis
  • See here for Urinary Stones (Struvite, Cysteine, Calcium Oxalate)
  What causes Urinary Tract Infections in dogs? A digestive issue is normally caused by improper digestion. An underperforming digestive system, but generally caused by improper use. There are factors thought to influence the risk of contracting a UTI. These factors included whether or not the dog is male or female, (females more likely) if they’ve been spayed or neutered (more likely than intact dogs), some breeds are predisposed and age is a factor as well. Those are factors that increase the likelihood, these following are the causes on Urinary Tract infections in dogs:   Urine Microbiome Imbalance – Incorrect Diet/ Overuse of antibiotics The urine microbiome is a community of microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses) in the urine, healthy dogs has a diverse bacterial and fungal species. (2) We used to think that urine was sterile! In fact it contains its own ecosystem of bacteria that comes from the foods that you feed your dog. There is a balance of bacteria which keeps your dog healthy, when it becomes imbalanced, the overgrowth of certain bacteria cause an infection.   pH of the Urine – Incorrect Diet A healthy dog produces slightly acidic urine between 6.0-6.5 pH. There is a correlation between bacterial overgrowth with more neutral urine, around pH 7. (3)   Improper macronutrient balance If a dog’s diet is not made up of the proper balance of ingredient, for example fresh meat which is acidic, the balance of ingredients become unnaturally alkaline for dogs. The more neutral pH creates a safer environment for more bacteria to grow and become imbalanced.   Improper functioning of the Lower Urinary Tract – Incorrect diet or inherited The Lower Urinary Tract has several mechanisms for the defence against bacterial overgrowth and imbalance, this includes releasing anti-microbial peptides and releasing neutrophils, immune cells. (4)   How to treat? Treatment of your dog’s urinary tract infection with diet will mean eliminating the underlying causes, to make sure to minimize further damage. The most important part of ensuring there’s no recurrence, is going to be a move to a fresh food diet. A diverse, balanced bacteria, creating a healthy microbiome, both in the gut and the urine, comes from having a diet with a range of natural fresh foods in the diet. This will have secondary effects of improving the lower urinary tracts ability to deal with bacterial overgrowth and ensure the urine pH is within the correct range. The use of more acidic ingredients like cranberries or pomegranate can also decrease urine pH effectively. (5) By using a range of anti-inflammatory ingredients, in combination with a complete diet, your dog will likely not have any recurring issues.   Specific nutrition for a dog with Urinary Tract Infecitons   Protein A high protein diet is recommended, high in meat to help acidify the urine.   Fats A standard medium fat diet is recommended.   Carbohydrates This should be lowered to help balance the gut bacteria and to aid lowering urine pH.   Vitamins and Minerals A standard complete diet is recommended.   Recommended supplements for a dog with a Urinary Tract Infeciton Cranberry (5) D-Mannose (6) Probiotics (6)   If you'd like a consultation to help create a plan for your dog, please click here. If you'd like specific Urinary health recipes, bespoke to your dog, please click here.   References
  1. https://todaysveterinarypractice.com/urinary-tract-infections-in-dogs/
  2. Melgarejo, T., Oakley, B.B., Krumbeck, J.A., Tang, S., Krantz, A. and Linde, A., 2021. Assessment of bacterial and fungal populations in urine from clinically healthy dogs using next‐generation sequencing. Journal of veterinary internal medicine35(3), pp.1416-1426.
  3. Robin R. Shields-Cutler, Jan R. Crowley, Chia S. Hung, Ann E. Stapleton, Courtney C. Aldrich, Jonas Marschall, Jeffrey P. Henderson. Human Urinary Composition Controls Siderocalin's Antibacterial ActivityJournal of Biological Chemistry, 2015; jbc.M115.645812 DOI: 1074/jbc.M115.645812
  4. Byron, J.K., 2019. Urinary tract infection. Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice49(2), pp.211-221.
  5. Chou, H.I., Chen, K.S., Wang, H.C. and Lee, W.M., 2016. Effects of cranberry extract on prevention of urinary tract infection in dogs and on adhesion of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. American journal of veterinary research77(4), pp.421-427.
  6. Gerber, B., 2018. Current tips on the management of canine urinary tract infections.

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Dachshund scaled e1632305665375

Homemade dog food diets for dogs with Cystine Stones

Here's all the latest research on canine cystine stones, I've condensed into this article so you can get the best understanding of what cystine stones are, how they form, why they form and how to use nutrition to help treat them.   The great news is, you don't only have to use a processed low quality veterinary diet.   What are cystine stones? Canine cystinuria is caused by a malfunctioning within the tubes or transporter channels in the kidneys, (part of the urinary tract) specifically when it comes absorption of cystine and other types of amino acids. This leads to the formation of rock-like formations of minerals that form in the urinary tract, specifically bladder. To understand a little more about how and why they form, you need to understand the urinary tract.   What does the urinary tract do? The urinary tract is a waste removal system. When your dog eats, the body takes nutrients from the food and they go into the blood through the digestive process. Not everything taken into the blood is needed or in fact healthy, and some of what the body has used needs removing from the body, the waste. The kidneys and urinary system help the body to eliminate the waste. Sometimes there’s too much waste or not enough of the right stuff, or the kidneys struggle to absorb and nutrient and it causes an imbalance. This makes the urinary tract more susceptible to encountering issues, like infections or types of stones or both.   What are the symptoms of a cystine stones in dogs?

  • Bloody and/or cloudy urine
  • Straining or whimpering during urination
  • Accidents in the house
  • Needing to be let outside more frequently
  • Licking around the urinary opening
  • Fever
  What causes Cystine Stones? (Too much cystine)
  • Altered intestinal transport of cystine (1)
  • A high urine specific gravity suggests an increase in concentration of urolithic precursors. (1)
  • Certain mutations in genes predispose dogs for cysteine stones. A classification model developed in 2013 indicates four types of genetic defects that can lead to cystine urolithiasis, from which one type is sex-linked to intact male dogs (2)
  • Cystine uroliths form typically in acidic urine, however the solubility of cystine is about 250 mg/ L at 6.5pH, meaning they do dissolve in acidic urine. This solubility increases as the urine becomes more alkaline. For example, 500 mg of cystine will dissolve in a litre of urine at a pH of 7.5. But this increased pH this brings an increased risk of other health issues. (3)
  If stones are present, an initial high alkaline diet with the inclusion of potassium citrate is recommended to increase the speed in which the stones dissolve (4) , however this is not recommended or necessary for the maintenance cystine stones, as long term high alkaline diets will present other issues. Dietary management of cystine stones is designed around maintaining a urine pH 6.5 - 6.75. This is done by having a slightly more alkaline diet than is normally prescribed for a dog. Also decreasing the urine specific gravity (promoting urine dilution) this is best achieved by feeding high-moisture diets (5). Raw food diets have a moisture content of around 70%. There is little evidence to support dietary restriction of protein, however the restriction of methionine contain foods like broccoli, mushrooms, cauliflower, potato’s is recommended. Also the vegetables used should have a high in organic anion content (6) You need to restrict salt intake. No more snacking on leftovers that have human levels of salt. The inclusion of Alpha Lipoic Acid is a safe and well tolerated food supplement that has been remarkably effective in a mouse model of cystinuria. (7) Selenium supplementation has also been shown to reduce cystine volume (8)   Get Cam's help: If you'd like a bespoke Urinary Recipe Plan, please click here. If you'd like to organise a Consultation, please click here.   References
  1. Bartges, J.W. and Callens, A.J., 2015. Urolithiasis. Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice45(4), pp.747-768.
  2. Burggraaf, N.D., Westgeest, D.B. and Corbee, R.J., 2021. Analysis of 7866 feline and canine uroliths submitted between 2014 and 2020 in the Netherlands. Research in Veterinary Science137, pp.86-93.
  3. Leslie, S.W., Sajjad, H. and Nazzal, L., 2020. Cystinuria. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing.
  4. Lulich, J.P., Berent, A.C., Adams, L.G., Westropp, J.L., Bartges, J.W. and Osborne, C.A., 2016. ACVIM small animal consensus recommendations on the treatment and prevention of uroliths in dogs and cats. Journal of veterinary internal medicine30(5), pp.1564-1574.
  5. Queau, Y., 2019. Nutritional management of urolithiasis. Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice49(2), pp.175-186.

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Urinary 2 | Canine nutritionist

Homemade dog food diets for dogs with Struvite Stones or Crystals

Here's all the latest research on diet and struvite stones/ crystals for dogs, condensed into an easy to read article to help you make the best decision possible for your dog.   What are struvite stones or crystals? Struvite is the name given to the crystal/ stone that forms in the urinary tract. Struvite crystals can be present in normal urine and alone, they do not require treatment. However when you combine them with certain bacteria and urine which is too alkaline, this leads to the formation of rock-like formation of minerals that form in the bladder (part of the urinary tract. (1) As they make their way through the urinary tract, the can cause dog’s serious discomfort and pain. To understand a little more about how and why they form, you need to understand the urinary tract.   What are the symptoms of a struvite stones in dogs?

  • Bloody and/or cloudy urine
  • Straining or whimpering during urination
  • Accidents in the house
  • Needing to be let outside more frequently
  • Licking around the urinary opening
  • Fever
  What does the urinary tract do? The urinary tract is a waste removal system. When your dog eats, the body takes nutrients from the food and they go into the blood through the digestive process. Not everything taken into the blood is needed or in fact healthy, and some of what the body has used needs removing from the body, the waste. The kidneys and urinary system help the body to eliminate the waste. Sometimes there’s too much waste or not enough of the right stuff, this creates an environment susceptible to encountering issues, like infections or types of stones or both.   What causes Struvite stones in dogs? Struvite stones are formed when there are increased levels of bacteria in the urinary tract. Struvite stones are form when there is an overgrowth of bacteria, like Staphylococci and Proteus species, signalling an infection (bacterial imbalance). The bacteria produce the enzyme urease. This enzyme then reacts with urine that’s too alkaline, causing a stone to form. (1)   What are the causes of infection in the Urinary Tract? Urine Microbiome Imbalance – Incorrect Diet/ Overuse of antibiotics  The urine microbiome is a community of microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses) in the urine, healthy dogs has a diverse bacterial and fungal species. (2) We used to think that urine was sterile! In fact it contains its own ecosystem of bacteria that comes from the foods that you feed your dog.   Improper functioning of the Lower Urinary Tract – Incorrect diet (mainly) or inherited The Lower Urinary Tract has several mechanisms for the defence against bacterial overgrowth and imbalance, this includes releasing anti-microbial peptides and releasing neutrophils, immune cells. (3)   Alkaline Urine A healthy dog produces slightly acidic urine between 6.0-6.5 pH. There is a correlation between bacterial overgrowth with more neutral urine, around pH 7. (4) Fresh meat is acidic, diets lacking in fresh ingredients, in particular meat and fresh food ingredients become unnaturally alkaline for dogs.   How to treat? Treatment of your dog’s struvite stones with diet will mean eliminating the underlying causes, to make sure to minimize further damage. The most important part of ensuring there’s no recurrence, is going to be a move to a fresh food diet. A diverse, balanced bacteria, creating a healthy microbiome, both in the gut and the urine, comes from having a diet with a range of natural fresh foods in the diet. This will have secondary effects of improving the lower urinary tracts ability to deal with bacterial overgrowth and ensure the urine pH is within the correct range. The use of more acidic ingredients like cranberries or pomegranate can also decrease urine pH effectively. (5) By using a range of anti-inflammatory ingredients, in combination with a complete diet, your dog will likely not have any recurring issues.   Specific Diet for Struvite Crystals   Protein A high protein diet is recommended, high in meat to help acidify the urine.   Fats A standard medium fat diet is recommended.   Carbohydrates This should be lowered to help balance the gut bacteria and to aid lowering urine pH.   Vitamins and Minerals A standard complete diet is recommended.   Which supplements are recommended for dogs with Struvite stones or crystals? Cranberry (6) D-Mannose (7) Probiotics (7)   If you'd like more help with your dog's diet: For specific Urinary Recipes, click here. For a consultation call with Cam, click here.  
  1. Lulich, J.P., Berent, A.C., Adams, L.G., Westropp, J.L., Bartges, J.W. and Osborne, C.A., 2019. ACVIM Small Animal Consensus Recommendations on the Treatment and Prevention of Uroliths in Dogs and Cats. 日本獣医腎泌尿器学会誌11(1), pp.30-40.
  2. Melgarejo, T., Oakley, B.B., Krumbeck, J.A., Tang, S., Krantz, A. and Linde, A., 2021. Assessment of bacterial and fungal populations in urine from clinically healthy dogs using next‐generation sequencing. Journal of veterinary internal medicine35(3), pp.1416-1426.
  3. Byron, J.K., 2019. Urinary tract infection. Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice49(2), pp.211-221.
  4. Robin R. Shields-Cutler, Jan R. Crowley, Chia S. Hung, Ann E. Stapleton, Courtney C. Aldrich, Jonas Marschall, Jeffrey P. Henderson. Human Urinary Composition Controls Siderocalin's Antibacterial ActivityJournal of Biological Chemistry, 2015; jbc.M115.645812 DOI: 1074/jbc.M115.645812
  5. Chou, H.I., Chen, K.S., Wang, H.C. and Lee, W.M., 2016. Effects of cranberry extract on prevention of urinary tract infection in dogs and on adhesion of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. American journal of veterinary research77(4), pp.421-427.
  6. Chou, H.I., Chen, K.S., Wang, H.C. and Lee, W.M., 2016. Effects of cranberry extract on prevention of urinary tract infection in dogs and on adhesion of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. American journal of veterinary research77(4), pp.421-427.
  7. Gerber, B., 2018. Current tips on the management of canine urinary tract infections.

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Urinary 2 | Canine nutritionist

Homemade dog food diets for dogs with Calcium Oxalate Stones

Here’s all the latest research on canine calcium oxalate stones, I’ve condensed into this article so you can get the best understanding of what calcium oxalate stones are, how they form, why they form and how to use nutrition to help treat them.   What are Calcium Oxalate Stones? Calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of kidney stone. Kidney stones are solid masses of calcium and oxalate that form in the kidney. During their journey out of the urinary tract, they can cause significant pain and discomfort to your dog. They are not simply caused by too much calcium in the diet, it’s a little more complete.   What does the urinary tract do? The urinary tract is a waste removal system. When your dog eats, the body takes nutrients from the food and it goes into the blood. Not everything taken into the blood is needed or in fact healthy, it’s waste. The kidneys and urinary system help the body to eliminate the waste. Sometimes there’s too much waste or not enough of a key component of health, which is when the urinary tract will begin to encounter issues, like infections or types of stones.   What are the symptoms of a Calcium Oxalate Stones in dogs?

  • Bloody and/or cloudy urine
  • Straining or whimpering during urination
  • Accidents in the house
  • Needing to be let outside more frequently
  • Licking around the urinary opening
  • Fever
  What causes Calcium Oxalate Stones? (Too much calcium in the urine) There are factors that increase the probability, like disease factors (diet, body condition score (BCS), urine pH, and urine specific gravity). Certain breeds are more predisposed, Crain Terrier, Jack Russell’s Terrier, Lhasa Apso, Maltese, Papillon, Pomeranian, Shih Tzu, and Yorkshire Terriers. However, the following are the causes of Calcium oxalate stones in dogs.
  • Urine microbiome imbalance – Incorrect diet
  • Calcium homeostasis - Incorrect balance of calcium, can be too high or too low
  • Insufficient or unbalanced phosphorus and Vitamin D
  • Urine supersaturation – too many minerals in urine causing crystallisation
  • Hypoparathyroidism – too little parathyroid hormone
  • Kidney disease
(1,2,3,4)   How to treat? Treatment of calcium oxalate stone should be aimed at eliminating the underlying causes, to make sure to minimize further damage. The most important part of ensuring there’s no recurrence, is going to be a move to a fresh food diet. A diverse, balanced and healthy microbiome, both in the gut and the urine, comes from having a range of natural fresh foods in the diet (1). The bacterial urinary microbiome in healthy has a greater taxonomic richness, meaning it’s a clear indicator of health. (6) Secondly, you’ll need to review the balance of the current diet, what are the calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D levels, are they sufficient? Too much or too little can contribute to calcium oxalate stones. (2) Try to increase fluid intake with bone broth and watermelon. A study on increasing salt levels to help alleviate calcium oxalate stones, found that by adding 2-3g per 1kg of food, it increased water intake by around 50%. (5) This should be a short term solution, only do this in the first week when your dog is clearly experiencing pain. Prolonged salt intake would not be healthy.   Get Cam’s help: If you’d like a bespoke Urinary Recipe Plan, please click here. If you’d like to organise a Consultation, please click here.   References:
  1. Rodríguez, F.M., Rubio, L.S., Nanne, I.G., Martín, F.S., Emiliani, E. and Feu, O.A., 2020. The relationship between calcium oxalate lithiasis and chronic proinflammatory intestinal dysbiosis pattern: a prospective study. Urolithiasis48(4), pp.321-328.
  2. Hunprasit, V., 2017. Epidemiologic Evaluation of Risk Factors for Calcium Oxalate Urolith Formation and Recurrence in Dogs
  3. Stevenson, A.E., Blackburn, J.M., Markwell, P.J. and Robertson, W.G., 2004. Nutrient intake and urine composition in calcium oxalate stone-forming dogs: comparison with healthy dogs and impact of dietary modification. Veterinary therapeutics: research in applied veterinary medicine5(3), pp.218-231.
  4. Luskin, A.C., Lulich, J.P., Gresch, S.C. and Furrow, E., 2019. Bone resorption in dogs with calcium oxalate urolithiasis and idiopathic hypercalciuria. Research in veterinary science123, pp.129-134.
  5. Queau, Y., Bijsmans, E.S., Feugier, A. and Biourge, V.C., 2020. Increasing dietary sodium chloride promotes urine dilution and decreases struvite and calcium oxalate relative supersaturation in healthy dogs and cats. Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition104(5), pp.1524-1530.
  6. Melgarejo, T., Oakley, B.B., Krumbeck, J.A., Tang, S., Krantz, A. and Linde, A., 2021. Assessment of bacterial and fungal populations in urine from clinically healthy dogs using next‐generation sequencing. Journal of veterinary internal medicine35(3), pp.1416-1426.

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Pancreatitis

Homemade dog food diets for dogs with Pancreatitis.

Here is the latest research on canine pancreatitis, condensed into an article so you can make the most informed decisions about caring for your dog.   What does the pancreas do? The pancreas produces enzymes that help with the digestion of fats, carbohydrates and proteins. It also releases hormones that control blood sugar, insulin and glucagon which goes into the blood. The enzymes help digest food, and inadequate enzyme release can lead to the pancreas failing to get enzymes out of the pancreas, causing inflammation and having secondary effects like the dog not being able to digest their food properly. The pancreas also makes sure not too much sugar, which is digested from the food, is present in the blood through the release of hormones. Improper production of hormones causes and inability to control blood sugar, which is what diabetic dogs suffer from.   What is pancreatitis? Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas causing a reduced ability to carry out the functions it needs to. The pancreas is an organ rooted in the digestive process, and making sure you manage it correctly begins with the diet. Acute or a “one off” bout of pancreatitis is considered a completely reversible condition. (1) Chronic pancreatitis or a recurring bout/s can become a lot more problematic due to the potential for bile duct obstruction. This is when activated enzymes get stuck in the pancreas, which then effectively digest parts of the pancreas (necrosis), causing further inflammation and potential loss of function. Secondary effects can be diabetes or malnutrition from an reduced ability to digest food.   What are the symptoms of Pancreatitis in dogs?

  • Vomiting
  • Fever
  • Lethargy
  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhoea
  • Decreased appetite.
  • Frequently adopting the bow/ prayer position
  The causes your dog’s pancreas to become inflamed (pancreatitis)
  • Wrong diet which is an incorrect balance of protein/ fats/ carbs
  • Hyperlipoproteinemia is a reduced ability to break down lipids or fats.
  • Hypercalcemia Calcium builds up in the pancreas
  • Bile duct obstruction Enzymes can’t be released
  • Drugs g. Azathioprine, chlorthiazide, hydrochlorthiazide, zinc, potassium bromide, vinblastine, sulfonamides, cisplatin, organophosphates, L-asparaginase, and 5-aminosalicylat.
  • Toxin Ingestion
  • Pancreatic trauma Physical damage
(2,3,4)   How to treat? Treatment of your dog’s pancreatitis with diet will mean eliminating the underlying causes, to make sure to minimize further damage. The most important part of ensuring there’s no recurrence, is going to be a move to a fresh food diet that’s balanced with the correct macronutrients. Ensuring that your dog is digesting the right food, in the right balance, will be the most effective way to safeguard against improper enzymes release. The first stage, after any type of pancreatic issue no matter how severe, is a 24hr fast period. This allows for a clear-out and will decrease the levels of inflammation. Depending on the severity of the issue will depend on the continued diet, but it’s recommended that all dogs start on a really low fat diet of around 5%. Initially use cooked sweet potato, a low-glycaemic carbohydrates which is high in soluble fibres (anti-inflammatory) as well as digestive enzymes to aid with digestion. Natural supplements like quercetin can be used to inhibit inflammatory mediators. (5,6) If it’s just a one off flare up, after a few weeks on a 5% fat diet, move to a more balanced recipe with a slightly higher fat % and you can gradually increase the fats back to around the 10% range after a month. If it’s not just a flare (seek Veterinary advice) it can be that some cases of pancreatitis have damaged the pancreas leading to recurring episodes and a strict diet will need to be maintained on an ongoing basis. For all dogs who’ve had pancreatitis, it’s important to avoid high fat treats.   Protein A moderate protein diet is recommended.   Fat Whilst in early stages of recovery (first two weeks), the diet should be max. 5%. For dogs with one off bouts, you can gradually increase this up over the period of 1 month back to normal healthy range. 10-15% fat. For dogs with recurring pancreatic issues, it’s recommended the dog stays on a diet of 5% fat.   Carbohydrates and Fibre An increase of carbohydrates in the diet to account for the reduced fat. Cooked sweet potato and brown rice will help provide the energy your dog’s need without increasing the fat levels over 5%. These carbs should be max. 20% of the total meal. For dogs who need a long term low fat diet, keep the carb content at 15%. For dogs suffering from diabetes, the carbohydrate consumption needs to be managed carefully.   Vitamins and Minerals Niacin is a vitamin that has been used successfully for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, in dogs, niacin treatment reduced serum triglyceride concentrations for several months without causing any side effects (7) Niacin is usually administered at the dose of 25–100 mg/day and is prevalent in liver, low fat poultry meats and salmon (8) For those with chronic pancreatitis, reduced mineral intake need to be accounted for with a multi-vitamin supplement.   Supplementation for dogs with Pancreatitis Resveratrol supplementation is recommended because of its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant mechanisms, studies show it to be really effective and natural therapeutic component for the treatment of pancreatitis. (9) A large number of clinical studies have shown that rhubarb enema can reduce serum inflammatory cytokines, high sensory C-reactive protein (CRP) and endotoxin levels, and relieve the systemic inflammatory stress response and restore intestinal mucosal barrier function in SAP patients (10) Supplementing with Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil has been shown to lower serum lipoprotein concentrations in humans with primary hypertriglyceridemia, normal humans, and experimental animals (11) However, not all Omega-3 fish oil is the same. Low quality options, which tend to be higher in toxins will have the opposite effect. Either use a fish source or a high quality organic option. (12)   Get Cam's help: For specific recipes for pancreatic support, click here. For a consultation with Cam, click here.   References:
  1. Lindsay, S., Entenman, C. and Chaikoff, I.L., 1948. Pancreatitis accompanying hepatic disease in dogs fed a high fat, low protein diet.  Pathol.45, pp.635-638.
  2. Charles M.G. Maxie (Ed.), Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer's Pathology of Domestic Animals (5th ed.), Saunders Elsevier, Edinburgh (2007), pp. 389-423
  3. Johnson, M.C., 2005. Hyperlipidemia disorders in dogs. Compendium27, pp.361-370.
  4. Wilkinson, A.R., DeMonaco, S.M., Panciera, D.L., Otoni, C.C., Leib, M.S. and Larson, M.M., 2020. Bile duct obstruction associated with pancreatitis in 46 dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine34(5), pp.1794-1800.
  5. Hamalainen, M. et al. Effects of flavonoids on prostaglandin E2 production and on COX-2 and mPGES-1 expressions in activated macrophages. Planta Med. 77, 1504–1511. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1270762(2011).
  6. Palozza, P. et al. beta-Carotene downregulates the steady-state and heregulin-alpha-induced COX-2 pathways in colon cancer cells. J. Nutr. 135, 129–136. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/135.1.129(2005).
  7. Johnson, M.C., 2005. Hyperlipidemia disorders in dogs. Compendium27, pp.361-370.
  8. Bauer, J.E., 1995. Evaluation and dietary considerations in idiopathic hyperlipidemia in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (USA).
  9. Ma, Q., Zhang, M., Wang, Z., Ma, Z. and Sha, H., 2011. The beneficial effect of resveratrol on severe acute pancreatitis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences1215(1), pp.96-102.
  10. Yao, P., Cui, M., Li, Y., Deng, Y. and Wu, H., 2015. Effects of rhubarb on intestinal flora and toll-like receptors of intestinal mucosa in rats with severe acute pancreatitis. Pancreas44(5), pp.799-804.
  11. Xenoulis, P.G. and Steiner, J.M., 2010. Lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia in dogs. The Veterinary Journal183(1), pp.12-21.
  12. Hong, M.Y., Hoh, E., Kang, B., DeHamer, R., Kim, J.Y. and Lumibao, J., 2017. Fish oil contaminated with persistent organic pollutants induces colonic aberrant crypt foci formation and reduces antioxidant enzyme gene expression in rats. The Journal of nutrition147(8), pp.1524-1530.
 

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Liver | Diet for Pancreatic

Liver disease in dogs, homemade diets and nutrition.

Here's the latest research on liver disease in dogs and nutrition. I've condensed it into an easy to read article, to help you make the best decisions possible when caring for your dog.  

How Does a Dog’s Liver Function?

The liver is an integral part of your dog’s digestive system. A healthy liver processes all blood that leaves the stomach and intestines in order to support digestion, break down toxins, metabolise proteins, fats and carbohydrates, store essential vitamins, minerals, and nutrients, and eliminate waste from your dog’s body. Your dog’s liver also metabolizes drugs and removes all waste from their digestive system by excreting a fluid called bile.    

Liver Diseases and Illnesses

All liver diseases and liver-related health issues will reduce the functioning ability of your dog’s liver. Below is a list of such illnesses (1):  
  • Acute or Chronic Hepatitis (Inflammation)
  • Hepatic Cirrhosis (Scarring)
  • Portal Hypertension (High blood pressure)
  • Shunts (Deformation)
  • Bile duct obstruction (Obstructing enzymes from leaving the liver)
  • Storage diseases (Can’t remove waste)
  • Cancer
   

What are the Symptoms of Liver-Related Illnesses in Dogs?

  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Vomiting
  • Stomach ulceration
  • Diarrhoea
  • Seizures or other neurologic problems
  • Fever
  • Blood clotting problems
  • Jaundice (a yellow tinge noticeable in the skin, mucous membranes, and eyes)
  • Fluid collection in the abdomen
  • Excessive urination and thirst
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding can be seen in animals with liver disease due to ulcers or problems with blood clotting (2)
   

What are the Causes of Liver-Related Illnesses in Dogs?

  • Bacterial or viral inflammation
  • Obesity (causes overuse of liver)
  • Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis (causes bacterial inflammation)
  • Inability to remove copper (causes a build up of copper that damages the liver)
  • Cancer of the liver
  • Reduced ability to digest fats (Hyperlipidaemia)
  • Cysts or gallstones (impedes liver function)
  • Endocrine diseases (causes inadequate enzyme secretion)
  • Ingestion of a toxic substance
  • Congenital defects
  • Autoimmune disorders
(3,4)    

How Can I Treat My Dog’s Liver Disease?

Primarily, an accurate diagnosis of your dog’s specific illness will be vital to your success in treating their liver disease, as you’ll be able to remove the primary cause of their reduced function. The second goal of hepatic therapy is to provide nutritional support. The premise of all diets that remedy liver disease is the same, as you’ll need to avoid overwhelming the functioning capacities your dog’s liver has, while providing sufficient nutrients for liver regeneration and other bodily functions. Lastly, your dog may require specific therapies, such as anti-inflammatories, antifibrotics, or copper chelation, as well as liver support therapy, such as antioxidants and additional vitamins (5,6).    

Diet Breakdown

Protein

Protein is needed to support your dog’s hepatic regeneration and prevent negative nitrogen balance, which is why your dog’s protein intake should be increased to the highest level. Protein restriction should only be implemented if your dog is showing signs of hepatic encephalopathy.  

Fat

An increase in fat content will increase caloric density and palatability. This means the dog is consuming less quantity digesting less, while intaking an equal amount of calories. Fat is tolerated by dogs with liver disease unless they are suffering with severe cholestasis, which results in fat maldigestion.  

Carbohydrates and Fibre

If your dog has liver disease, they may see a decrease in hepatic glycogen storage, which potentially increases the risk of low blood sugar levels and increases the use of protein catabolism for energy. Therefore, feeding your dog high-glycaemic treats (carbohydrate treats that break down quickly) between meals will prevent low blood sugar. The inclusion of some fibre, especially soluble fibre, will increase the speed that food is transported through your dog’s gut, which gives toxins less time to be absorbed.  

Vitamins and Minerals

Any disorder that decreases the amount of bile acids entering the intestine, enterohepatic bile acid circulation, or intestinal fat absorption requires the reduction in fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K. Vitamin K and E deficiencies are particularly common. It has been demonstrated that copper accumulation is often controlled using a low-copper diet. Dietary zinc can also block intestinal copper absorption, and zinc supplementation in a low-copper diet may also be beneficial following chelation therapy.  

Recommended Supplements

Silibinin (Milk Thistle Extract): Antioxidant that suppresses fibrinogenesis, promotes fibrinolysis, and helps protect against hepatotoxins (6).

  References
  1. Prins, M., Schellens, C.J.M.M., Van Leeuwen, M.W., Rothuizen, J. and Teske, E., 2010. Coagulation disorders in dogs with hepatic disease. The Veterinary Journal185(2), pp.163-168.
  2. https://www.msdvetmanual.com/dog-owners/digestive-disorders-of-dogs/disorders-of-the-liver-and-gallbladder-in-dogs
  3. Cullen, J.M., 2009. Summary of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association standardization committee guide to classification of liver disease in dogs and cats. The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice39(3), p.395.
  4. Xenoulis, P.G. and Steiner, J.M., 2010. Lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia in dogs. The Veterinary Journal183(1), pp.12-21.
  5. Norton, R.D., Lenox, C.E., Manino, P. and Vulgamott, J.C., 2016. Nutritional considerations for dogs and cats with liver disease. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 52(1), pp.1-7.
  6. Twedt, D. C., Chandler, M. 2014. Clinical Nutrition for Common Liver Diseases. World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Proceedings
 

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This is my full research on canine kidney disease and diet. It's important to remember that kidney disease is extremely individual to

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